Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Definition and Purpose of Political Institutions

The Definition and Purpose of Political Institutions Political institutions are the organizations in a government which create, enforce, and apply laws. They often mediate conflict, make (governmental) policy on the economy and social systems, and otherwise provide representation for the population. In general, democratic political regimes are divided into two types: presidential (headed by a president) and parliamentary (headed by a parliament). Legislatures built to support the regimes are unicameral (only one house) or bicameral (two houses- for example, a senate and a house of representatives or a house of commons and a house of lords). Party systems can be two-party or multiparty, the parties can be strong or weak depending on their level of internal cohesion. The political institutions are those bodies- parties, legislatures, and heads of state- which make up the whole mechanism of modern governments. Parties, Trade Unions, and Courts In addition, political institutions include political party organizations, trade unions, and the (legal) courts. The term Political Institutions may also refer to the recognized structure of rules and principles within which the above organizations operate, including such concepts as the right to vote, a responsible government, and accountability. Political Institutions, in Brief Political institutions and systems have a direct impact on the business environment and activities of a country. For example, a political system that is straightforward and evolving when it comes to political participation of the people and laser-focused on the well-being of its citizens contributes to positive economic growth in its region. Every society must have a type of political system so it may allocate resources and ongoing procedures appropriately. Along with the same concept, a political institution sets the rules in which an orderly society obeys and ultimately decides and administers the laws for those that do not obey appropriately. Types of Political Systems The political system consists of both politics and government and involves the law, economy, culture and additional social concepts. The most popular political systems that we know of around the world can be reduced to a few simple core concepts. Many additional types of political systems are similar in idea or root, but most tend to surround concepts of: Democracy: A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.Republic: A state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.Monarchy:Â  A form of government in which one person reigns, typically a king or a queen. The authority, also known as a crown, is typically inherited.Communism:Â  A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy. Often, an authoritarian party holds power and state controls are imposed.Dictatorship: A form of government where one person makes the main rules and decisions with absolute power, disregarding input from others. The Function of a Political System In 1960, Almond and Coleman gathered three core functions of a political system which include:Â   To maintain the integration of society by determining norms.To adapt and change elements of social, economic, and religious systems necessary for achieving collective (political) goals.To protect the integrity of the political system from outside threats. In modern day society in the United States, for example, the main function of the two core political parties is seen as a way to represent interest groups and constituents and to create policies while minimizing choices. Overall, the idea is to make legislative processes easier for people to understand and engage with. Political Stability and Veto Players Every government seeks stability, and, without institutions, a democratic political system simply cannot work. Systems need rules to be able to select political actors (the nomination process). The leaders must have fundamental skills about how the political institutions work and there must be rules about how authoritative decisions are made. The institutions constrain political actors by punishing deviations from institutionally prescribed behaviors and rewarding appropriate behavior. Institutions can resolve collection action dilemmas- for example, all governments have a collective interest in reducing carbon emissions, but for individual actors, making a choice for the greater good makes no good sense from an economic standpoint. So, it must be up to the federal government to establish enforceable sanctions. But the main purpose of a political institution is to create and maintain stability. That purpose is made viable by what American political scientist George Tsebelis calls veto players. Tsebelis argues that the number of veto players- people who must agree on a change before it can go forward- makes a significant difference in how easily changes are made. Significant departures from the status quo are impossible when there are too many veto players, with specific ideological distances among them. Agenda setters are those veto players who can say take it or leave it, but they must make proposals to the other veto players that will be acceptable to them. Sources Almond, Gabriel Abraham, and James Smoot Coleman, eds. The Politics of the Developing Areas. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016 (1960). Print.Armingeon, Klaus. Political Institutions. Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Political Science. Eds. Keman, Hans and Jaap J. Woldendrop. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016. 234–47. Print.Beck, Thorsten, et al. New Tools in Comparative Political Economy: The Database of Political Institutions. The World Bank Economic Review 15.1 (2001): 165–76. Print.Moe, Terry M. Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story. Journal of Law, Economics, Organization 6 (1990): 213–53. Print.Tsebelis, George. Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002. Print.Weingast, Barry R. The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-Preserving Federalism and Economic Development. Journal of Law, Economics, Organization 11.1 (1995): 1–31. Print.

Monday, March 2, 2020

A Definition and Introduction to Ergonomics

A Definition and Introduction to Ergonomics Ergonomics is a term thrown around by health professionals and marketing mavens with a cavalier attitude. For some, it has a very specific meaning. For others, it covers everything under the sun. With all this different verbiage flying at you, you are probably starting to wonder, â€Å"What is Ergonomics?† Definition of Ergonomics Ergonomics derives from two Greek words: ergon, meaning work, and nomoi, meaning natural laws, to create a word that means the science of work and a person’s relationship to that work. The International Ergonomics Association has adopted this technical definition: ​ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. That is not the most efficient definition of what ergonomics is. Let us keep things simple. Ergonomics is the science of making things comfy. It also makes things efficient. And when you think about it, comfy is just another way of making things efficient. However, for simplicity, ergonomics makes things comfortable and efficient. What Is the Study of Ergonomics? At its simplest definition ergonomics, it  literally means the science of work. So ergonomists, i.e. the practitioners of ergonomics, study work, how work is done and how to work better. It is the attempt to make work better that ergonomics becomes so useful. And that is also where making things comfortable and efficient comes into play. Ergonomics is commonly thought of in terms of products. But it can be equally useful in the design of services or processes. It is used in design in many complex ways. However, what you, or the user, is most concerned with is, â€Å"How can I use the product or service, will it meet my needs, and will I like using it?† Ergonomics helps define how it is used, how it meets your needs, and most importantly if you like it. It makes things comfy and efficient. What Is Comfort? Comfort is much more than a soft handle. Comfort is one of the greatest aspects of a design’s effectiveness. Comfort in the human-machine interface and the mental aspects of the product or service is a primary ergonomic design concern. Comfort in the human-machine interface is usually noticed first. Physical comfort in how an item feels is pleasing to the user. If you do not like to touch it, you wont. If you do not touch it, you will not operate it. If you do not operate it, then it is useless.​ The utility of an item is the only true measure of the quality of its design. The job of any designer is to find innovative ways to increase the utility of a product. Physical comfort while using an item increases its utility. Making an item intuitive and comfortable to use will ensure its success in the marketplace.   The mental aspect of comfort in the human-machine interface is found in feedback. You have preconceived notions of certain things. A quality product should feel like it is made out of quality materials. If it is lightweight and flimsy, you will not feel that comfortable using it. The look, feel, use, and durability of a product help you make a mental determination about a product or service. Basically, it lets you evaluate the quality of the item and compare that to the cost. Better ergonomics mean better quality, which means you will be more comfortable with the value of the item. What Is Efficiency? Efficiency is quite simply making something easier to do. Efficiency comes in many forms, however.​ Reducing the strength required makes a process more physically efficient.Reducing the number of steps in a task makes it quicker (i.e. efficient) to complete.Reducing the number of parts makes repairs more efficient.Reducing the amount of training needed, i.e. making it more intuitive, gives you a larger number of people who are qualified to perform the task. Imagine how inefficient trash disposal would be if your teenage child wasnt capable of taking out the garbage. Efficiency can be found almost everywhere. If something is easier to do, you are more likely to do it. If you do it more, then it is more useful. Again, the utility is the only true measure of the quality of a design. And if you willingly do something more often, you have a greater chance of liking it. If you like doing it, you will be more comfortable doing it. So the next time you hear the term ergonomics, you will know what it means to you. And, hopefully, that is a comforting thought.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Hunger in America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Hunger in America - Essay Example This is significantly above the figure of Americans who go hungry daily. This shows the irony that underlines the food situation in America. Hunger is mostly associated to poverty. It is, therefore, natural that one should expect that the groups that are affected by hunger are the low class and the homeless, generally the social classes that belong to the low-income categories. This is, nevertheless, not the scenario as highlighted in the video Food For Thought, which shows the shocking reality that the middle class is adversely affected by hunger. Statistics support this with America recording 3.5 million homeless individuals. This number is significantly low as compared to the mammoth number of 35 million who are affected by the hunger issue. Though the number of middle-income individuals who suffer from hunger is not as large as that of the lower social classes, they make up a significant number of the number of the affected population. The reason cited from the problem is loss of income through unemployment, which jeopardizes individuals’ ability to access food (Donavan and Mash, p1). It is, therefore, imperative that America takes measures to curb this dire situation. This will involve putting measures in place that will reduce food wastage. Initiatives should also be put in place to distribute food and to empower individuals economically hence curbing

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Arbitration Law paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Arbitration Law paper - Essay Example For example, section 1(c) stipulates â€Å"in matters governed by this part the court should not intervene except as provided by this part†. Nevertheless, the Act makes several provisions for court intervention at various stages of the proceeding. Arbitration agreement is an agreement to submit to arbitration present or future disputes.6 The Arbitration Act 1996 and the Scotland equivalent, Arbitration Act 2010, have several provisions with regards to requirements for a valid arbitration agreement; for example, it should be in writing.7 If the agreement does not satiate any of the requirements, a party can challenge its validity in court. The court has the power to rule on the validity of the arbitration agreement. It is crucial for courts to exercise powers with regards to the arbitration agreement, so as to maintain autonomy of the parties in making an agreement. The will of the parties to enter into the agreement should be genuine, and therefore if a party is coerced into t he agreement, the court should invalidate it. Section 10(2) of the Scotland Act goes ahead and invalidates any provision in the arbitral agreement that prevents the bringing of a legal action. Moreover, courts, pursuant to section 7 have the power to severe an arbitration agreement from the rest of the contract where the contract is held void for some reason. In Heyman v Darwins the House of Lords held that, â€Å"an arbitration agreement was not terminated by a breach of the underlying contract.†8 In Amir Weissfisch V. Anthony Julius, Rami Weissfisch, and Philip Davis9, the court upheld an arbitration agreement where the arbitrator would rule on whether he has jurisdiction over arbitration, even though the party argued that the agreement was void due to fraudulent acts committed by the arbitrator. With regards to the jurisdiction of the tribunal, section 31 enshrines the competence-competence principle, whereby the tribunal is empowered to rule on its own jurisdiction. Secti on 32(1) provides that the court may, on the application of a party to arbitral proceeding (upon notice to the other parties); determine any question as to the substantive jurisdiction of the tribunal. Courts have been entertaining many cases of this nature. In First Options v Kaplan10 the Supreme Court ruled that clear and unmistakable evidence should be submitted by the parties as agreed to submit to the arbitrator the question of the arbitrator’s jurisdiction. If not, the court will determine whether or not the arbitrator had a mandate to arbitrate.11 In Paine Webber Inc. v Mohammad S Elahi, the Court of Appeals held that, unless the parties specifically agreed otherwise it was incumbent for the court to determine both jurisdictional arbitrability and subject matter it was empowered to take up. Section 7 empowers the court to stay proceedings and refer parties to arbitration if an action subject to the agreement is commenced. An application to the effect is made by the oth er party subject to taking steps in those proceeding, to answer the substantive claim against him.12 The law requires the court to grant a stay of legal proceeding unless it is satisfied that the arbitration agree

Friday, January 24, 2020

Same-Sex Marriages Should NOT Be Allowed Essay -- Legal Issues, Same S

Allowing same-sex marriages would change the basic definition of marriage. Marriage is an important commitment of a man and a woman who contribute to civilization. Therefore, the loss of contributions due to someone’s sexual orientation should not be rewarded with a privilege such as marriage. Same-sex marriages affect many factors such as children, the concept of marriage, and humanity. However, it is not a misdemeanor to love somebody of the same gender but it can rigorously damage many aspects of life. In addition, same-sex marriages also can affect those who are raised by them as children. It was exposed that children raised by homosexual couples did worse than the offspring of heterosexual couples in nine of thirteen intellectual and social categories. When children are adopted they do not get a choice in whether their parents are gay or straight. For this reason, their sexual orientation may be distorted due to the parents they are adopted to. Children raised in families led by same-sex parents may choose to become gay or lesbian at a higher rate than thos...

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Writing tutor

Congratulations on being hired by the writing center. College writing can be a very daunting task for incoming freshman. It is important that you be familiar with the various Issues that freshman are confronted with. These Issues can be emotional as well as technical. You as a tutor should prepare yourself to be able to deal with both. Translational to college level writing Is always an emotional roller coaster.The students are going to face many misconceptions explained through, â€Å"So you've got a writing assignment. Now what? † by Chorine E. Hint. Huntington explains the transition hat most incoming freshmen face when walking into a college level English class. Many of the first year students come into the class with many misconceptions that they have been taught to be right, many of which turn out to be completely wrong. For example, Huntington explains how the five paragraph essay isn't going to be the basis of all college level essays.He also explains how the first wri ting is always the hardest because you do not know what the professor is expecting, so you as the tutor have to make sure you break down all the misconceptions students have when first coming Into class. There Is another article I want you to look at with the student, â€Å"what Is ‘academic writing? † By L. Lend Irvine. He uses a great courtroom analogy where he explains that college writing Is based off supporting evidence Like any other good courtroom cases.The students need to be able to understand how to support their claims as a writer. As a tutor you need to be able to use these skills when tutoring. Your job is to instill writing tactics that help the freshmen become better writers by being able to analyze how and what the topic is about, by breaking the topic down into many steps the student is able to put their ideas down into easier acetic. Irvine divides writing assignments into three deferent categories of , â€Å"an open writing assignment, The Semi-open Writing Assignment, and The Closed Writing Assignment. As long as the students understand the differences between these three different writing assignments they should have a clear understanding of what to look for. Many of the students are going to believe that they aren't a real writer because they are only taking one college writing class . But that is not the case , Sarah Allen describes this feeling in her article,†the inspired writer vs. the real writer† she comes to an inclusion that even the best writers struggle in their own writings. She explains how sometimes writers may become writers because of their certain upbringings.In order to become real writer they don't have to follow a certain structure. Once the students realize this they are able to be a real writer. She explains the whole writing process as ,†a way to figure out the little things. † Once again the students do not have to go through a whole process . Writing is an emotional process the y will feel discouraged but they aren't necessarily wrong. She talks about how she imitates other writers, to become a better writer. She doesn't mean she plagiarisms but follows the structures ,†formulas†,of other writers. Which the students can use In class, or even In any college level essay.She explains how In writing you have to think about an audience and following that how you display them. You as a college tutor have to off as an â€Å"Inspired writer† and eventually became a real writer, with everything writing takes practice. The students need to understand how to point out the key terms of either a writing assignment or of a source they wish to use and make sure they are using them to their advantage. Teaching students to follow technical instructions rather than emotional ones helps them to engage in communication with peers,and allows for a repetitive process to instill itself.It also allows it to analyze their audience as a student enabling the stude nt to write at a more college level and helps them transition to college level writing classes,topics, and will help them in the outside word. Now that you have been familiar with the various issues that incoming freshman are confronted with, it is important to use all of the tactics presented before you in order to build growth within the students confidence as well as writing ability. We have hit n issues that can be emotional as well as technical.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Addiction to Marijuana - 1533 Words

In the United States, marijuana is being categorized as a Class A Drug, but in reality marijuana has been known to help cure and fight many sicknesses and diseases. Marijuana is being criticized by people that never studied the drug or even know about the medicinal benefits from the drug. Over the years, marijuana has been called a gateway drug to harder narcotics, but this isn’t the case. Marijuana has many medicinal benefits that the media and government avoid releasing to the society but its about time we come forward with the facts and truths about this herb called marijuana. Marijuana should not be illegal or even be considered a Class A Drug. Marijuana in the early 1800’s to 1936 was being used as a cash crop was being grown more†¦show more content†¦In the June 2013 issue of Scientific American, Roxanne Khamsi looks at how the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana, THC, mimics the structure of molecmolecules produced naturally by the body. In the article; Marijuana ingredient slows artery hardening. That says â€Å"The mice ate a high-cholesterol diet for 11 weeks, which facilitated the buildup of thick plaques within their blood vessels. For the last 6 weeks of the diet, Machs team gave some of the mice daily oral doses of THC. The scientists found that the mice given a minute amount of THC had significantly smaller plaques and less inflammation than did those that hadnt received the chemical or that got larger doses† (science news). The science of marijuana: how THC affects the brain. That explains scientists identified the sites in the brain and body where marijuana acts and called them cannabinoid (CB) receptors. Scientists then discovered the bodys own natural chemicals--anandamide and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol)--which also act on CB receptors. These chemicals (called cannabinoids), along with their receptors, make up the endocannabinoid (EC) system. The EC system is found in many areas of the brain, which explains why it affects so many different body functions. Cannabinoids exert their influence by regulating how cells communicate--how they send, receive, or process messages† (New York Times).Show MoreRelatedMarijuana Addiction1162 Words   |  5 PagesBecoming Addicted to Marijuana â€Å"Marijuana is the most commonly used drug illegal drug in the world.† (â€Å"What is Marijuana†, 2013). It has recently become legal in a couple states, and more states are sure to follow their lead in the upcoming months. People can make the argument that marijuana does not have any negative effects, but they are wrong. Becoming addicted to marijuana is easy, and it only opens up the door for you to try other harmful drugs once marijuana quits getting you high. You needRead MoreConsequences of Addiction to Marijuana781 Words   |  3 Pagesthe use of marijuana range in a variety of physical, psychological, social, and even financial burdens. People who become addicted to marijuana often find themselves experiencing consequences in all these categories. Consequences and effects in one area often lead to more consequences and down falls in another. Physical can lead to psychological. Psychological can lead to social. Social can lead to financial. The burdens and hard consequences of marijuana use are all connected. Marijuana can be smokedRead MoreEssay on Marijuana Addiction in Adolescents630 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿ Marijuana Addiction in Adolescents Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the Nation and the world. In an article by Gray (2007) he states that â€Å"42% of high school seniors have tried marijuana, 18% have used it in the past 30 days, and 5% use it daily. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 3.6% met criteria for cannabis use disorder (abuse or dependence) and 2% met criteria for cannabis dependence†. Gray (2007) also explains how easily adolescents say it isRead MoreMarijuana Addiction : The Effects On Mind, Body, And Nation1326 Words   |  6 PagesCannabis Addiction: The Effects on Mind, Body, and Nation Treating Americans who have a marijuana addiction has now become a further complex problem than previous American cultures have ever experienced. Studies have now concluded that Americans start smoking and consuming at a much younger age than previous generations, and adults continue using well into their thirties and forties. Cannabis consumption can pose many health risks to not only the consumer, but also America as a nation. There areRead MoreMarijuana Addiction Is The State Of Being Dependent Of A Substance Or Item814 Words   |  4 PagesMarijuana Addiction Addiction is the state of being dependent of a substance or item. In this case the drug marijuana which is also known as weed, pot, and cannabis has the capability to become addictive. â€Å"In the Americas, cannabis extract was a popular medicinal drug in the 1800s. But in the 1900s, the tide began to turn against the drug† (â€Å"Marijuana: Facts†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ). It then proceeded in being banned in some states till it eventually became illegal. What Marijuana does is affect the brain through theRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?973 Words   |  4 PagesMany believe that Marijuana is addictive, and for that reason, should not be legalized. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, â€Å"Marijuana use can lead to the development of problem use, known as marijuana use disorder, which in severe cases takes the form of addiction.† According to recent data, it is suggested that around 30 percent of marijuana users may suffer from some degree of marijuana use disorder and people who started using marijuana when they were younger than 18 are 4-7Read MoreAddiction: More Than Just a Word Essay example1279 Words   |  6 PagesAddiction: More Than Just a Word â€Å"Prevention usually is translated as parents having conversations with their adolescent children, pointing out the dangers of alcohol.† (Kramer, LizSprague, Nancy, Alcohol Abuse Youth: An Overview). Children do not understand the effectiveness of something powerful like alcohol. They do, however, understand that alcohol can cause a person to become intoxicated. From seeing it on TV, they think it is fun. Also, children do not really pay attention to theRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?812 Words   |  4 PagesKush, Pot, Weed, Mary Jane, marijuana is known by many names. Americans perceive marijuana as an awful drug. But have americans discovered that marijuana has be known to contribute good and bad qualities for the human body. Americans should legalize marijuana because there has been no evidence that anyone has ever died of marijuana overdose, Marijuana is a safer drug than others, and Marijuana has a lower risk of addiction than most legalized drugs. To begin with, Marijuana was first known to be discoveredRead MoreEssay on Alcohol vs Marijuana1537 Words   |  7 PagesAlcohol vs Marijuana There is no culture in the history of mankind that did not ever use some kind (kinds) of drugs. Despite the well-known consequences of drug addiction, millions of people constantly consume different legal and illegal drugs. Affecting peoples mind and changing their behavior, drugs become one of the most threatening factors of social risk, resulting in increasing rates of mortality, aggressive and criminal behavior, and dissolution of social ties. This paper is devoted toRead MoreMarijuana Is A Safe And Non Addictive Drug1094 Words   |  5 Pagesis Marijuana, which is made from a Cannabis plant (Merrill 308). Many people have come to the conclusion that Marijuana is a safe and non-addictive drug because of the legalization of Marijuana in the United States. Unbeknown to the public, the carcinogenic compounds are actually greater in Marijuana than in cigarettes (Cohen, qtd. in Margolis 9). Subsequently, studies show that Marijuana ultimately impacts every primary system in the body ( Margolis 12). Furthermore, over the years Marijuana has